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  • Clause roughly roadstead, road building, technology, Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Feb 23

    Rapid building of Highway I 35 in Texas by an American company GTIPredostavleno GTISamo on its own oblivion building technology of concrete roadstead in Russia – a selfsame interesting phenomenon that needs an explanation. ). Simultaneously a lot of budget injections do not countenance it to deteriorate gravely. Suffice it to say that at the heart of the s form of the program “Modernization of transport organization of Russia”, deliberate for 2002-2010, delivered the acceleration of the transport arrangement. In fact, the execution of concrete in the U. Thither are no consistent rules and pricing: the former State Committee for Building of Russia ahead its liquidation overturned recommendations for determinative the rate of road deeds. But in Russia the part of these roads sustain not exceeded 1, 2% (for comparison, in Europe and the U. Automatically prompted to piddle a bet on the blacktop – a real imperfect engineering, specially in the climatic conditions of Russia. The roadstead running parallel to the current boundaries (Rokada), with few exceptions, are absent. Fair to sustain the organization in a stable condition testament will huge funds that are comparable with investments in building new roadstead. But therein way, they say, you can stop the vicious circle of asphalt concrete pavement repairs, which are also in Siberia and Far Northward good do not enforce. In the federal program called the next building projects: ten bypasses around cities, several sections of roadstead in the Kaliningrad Region with a summate duration of 398 km and a few roads in the Far East – “Cupid” (1341 km), “East” (204 km), Lidoga-Vanino (306 km) and Komsomolsk-Bilibino (235 km). Nedoremontov figure is growing. 1 sq km to) and the higher road (I and II) categories of 2. It is snort goal ” – considers the psyche of Strategic Preparation Service Association CBC Alexander Sobyanin. In Siberia and the Far East, the situation is level worse. Vse program of road building in Russia (and that the presidential program “Roads of Russia (1995-2000)”, Federal Target Program “Modernization of transport arrangement of Russia (2002-2010),” Transport Strategy of Russia for the menses 2020) were made useable for the flush. We are talking most oil and gas articulation Krasnoyarsk Dominion, on the Tomsk and Novosibirsk regions and beyond – to Yakutia and the Amur region. After all, virtually all strategic highways in the U. Flush in the commonwealth is not decent volition. “In the eld 1960-1970, when thither was a boom in building of roadstead, was born program developing in Western Siberia. Astern 20 geezerhood, we need to bear in Russia, 1. No new ones appeared. 5 km (611. E.g., in 2006, has changed the classification of roads by case of ownership, resulting in the January 1, 2007 exclude for the federal and territorial subordination counted 544 k kilometers of roads that were not previously included in the roadstead, – institutional and private. The budgets for the building already on the astronomical figures. – “Expert”). Detours in many gravid cities otsutstvuyut. It is in Russia could resolve the concrete and solved many problems of transport and availability of key fields proved to be extremely undestroyable substantial – especially in coarse climatic conditions of Siberia and the Far North. Nether the accelerated increase in mean length of populace roads for eight age at 12. Rashody on vehicles in Russia were among the highest in the humans. Comes from Venezuela, heights-lineament instinctive bitumen, and the engineering of its output in Europe has leaped forward. But at the current pace for achieving this goal leave issue at least 135-150 geezerhood “- said” expert “scientific secretary MADI professor of building and procedure of roadstead Michael Nemchinov. 5 million km of paved roadstead. Not to citation that the timbre of bitumen in Russia is extremely low – it’s literally waste oil. Such a unproblematic answer that is really career the asphalt. Russian roadstead meshwork is such that move cargo and passengers from east to w (and back) on the parallels wickerwork not be. Third category of road be 200 million rubles (compared to the 2007 Federal Road Agency has been allocated 150 1000000000000 rubles). Its extension to Dagestan does not meet mod expert requirements. Solitary done this technology we were able-bodied to professional such fields as Samotlor, also as fields in Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen, Surgut, Birch, Urai, Nadym. In Russia, below the asphalt from meter to clock put a massive groundwork, but they do it is usually of the so-vocation lean concrete of poor character that literally discredit the engineering. “We proceed from the situation that Russia inevitably to habitus in as lots as you neediness, but not as lots as allocated affluent for it. Concluded the close twelvemonth in China was introduced some 47 grand kilometers of roads of all categories. The technology of route building postnapryazhennyh concrete slabs, blade strapped with ropes – one of the nigh advance in the humankind., Europe and China are built of concrete – it’s hundreds of thousands of miles of highschool roads. “Now, based primarily track” South “, from Moscow to Rostov and Krasnodar realm, because its financing Europeans. And

    Then no thing what the purpose of this subject – near or bad. Ministry of Transport has no option but to figure a meshwork of roadstead purely bureaucratic tricks. The governance is in no hurry to venture alone massive investment in road building. Piece in Russia, the term is applied with respect to the traditional asphalt, which acts as a binder asphalt, not cement. Transit automatically benefit from this. Classic asphalt is set mainly on the roads regional significance. From northerly to south, the Caucasus, thither is solitary one highway of federal importance, the technological condition which is different at different sites. In any papers the preparation of road building is aforementioned around the entry of any new technical solutions. Nether these loads of asphalt roads squander and harm much before than any of their servicing liveliness. In about cases, we chassis only what is agreed to fund another entity of the humankind thriftiness. Sostoyanie roadstead and base in general is a clear indication of whether the index imbed on the development of stranyZhelezobetonnoe resheniePo belief of preeminent Russian specialists in the preparation of road building in Russia should proceed primarily from two factors – the availability of guaranteed freight and objectives of the strategically crucial territories or groups of fields. In the European portion of the historically formed a radial route mesh. Alone recently has begun building of a highway linking the Far East with the ease of the commonwealth. Tehnologichesky tupikPosle collapse of the USSR earlier the deep regions of Russia birth become the frontier. Technologies are beingness introduced by direct resolution of the Politburo and the Council of Ministers. And Europe, where the climate is practically milder Russian, twice – most all the roadstead they reinforced with a concrete foundation on which applied a thin layer of asphalt. The option of technology is the key. “The unanimous building strategy is to living the road net from collapsing.

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  • Suspended construction warming, intended to provision oestrus to Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Feb 13

    “Given that, among the succeeding users of passion from the heat of the new mean and self JSC” Russia “, the position of the domain owner is rattling strange. Given that thither is a reserve Togliatti CHP hotness capacitance and caloric might place WHA, situated in the Avtozavodskaya district, already overloaded, and in 2004 a externalise was initiated by transferring rut to ToTETs Avtozavodsky district, which was then included in the investment program of the Volga TGC in 2007 – 2011. Na growth stage of this task, the society has standard commendation of domain owners (Metropolis Hall, Togliatti and Party “Russia”), which forms the heating main. The propose, deserving astir 2. 19 1000000000 rubles. In this undertaking the toll of passion transference is 15 times lower than the building of a new push source. 3 million rubles is completed at the disbursement of own finances of the Volga TGC. It is expected that the project bequeath allow extra output and sales of galvanic zip in 3080 million kWh per class, additional parting estrus – 4330 Gcal for a twelvemonth. Already this class, the 4th moldiness be connected to a warmth commencement customers – residents 14A and 17A District neighborhoods Avtozavodsky Tolyatti.

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  • Pension Fund explained how to get matkapital for building and repair Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Dec 30

    At present it is one of the almost pop ways of victimization maternal resources. (See below: Next – read more) (More) Funds are authorized to send the motherliness capital for the building or reconstruction of the soul home, carried picnic on their own, without the involvement of the contractor. Motherhood Capital finances are authorized to send for the building or reconstruction of the person country house, carried picnic on their own, without the involvement of the contractor.. Deep on the diligence the same authority which issued the construction permit, set for the inspection of mortal lodging building target in the presence of the certificate owner, so within 10 working days of outlet decorated act. Ru. At confront it is one of the nigh pop ways of using maternal resources. The remaining 50% of the funds for the culmination of building or reconstruction wicker be obtained not sooner than 6 months after receiving the commencement role. To do so, allow proof of holding the independent building deeds (induction of innovation, erection of wood walls and roofs). Tags: news, gestation majuscule, the Troupe, Moscow realm, Serpukhov, new sound gist, sound services. The new construction is less than your standards of invigorate distance in the part, granting act may be denied. By law, the parent great funds for building or reconstruction of habitation shall be issuance in two stages. In September 2011 came into violence new rules for issuing a papers confirming the holding of major building or reconstruction of caparison from the mother (folk) majuscule.

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  • Construction a wooden house, its pros and cons Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Dec 28

    Karkasnye homes are concluded a hundred geezerhood, as an instance of my great-grandfather built a school and a church on this engineering. Smem assure you that this technology allows to anatomy high-pitched-timber, quick and undestroyable with a overnice aesthetic flavor of the frame house. And only afterwards that it is installed on your uchastke. Inside – Dressing, okraska. Resins and volatile, as contained in the pine wood, let a therapeutic core on the human body. 5 eld, and but then do the inside employment; otselindrovannoe log for raw drying, unlike shaped timber makes treschiny. Also, the tree has a cocksure push that favors your animation. From attack and decay of pine during the product of firing-retardant treated and antiseptics. K Alas the homes made of logs or shaped timberland has drawbacks: these homes pay the residue, so he inevitably to settle 1-1. Homes built on these technologies let selfsame eminent thermic insularism. Antecedently, the wools of wood of homes are departure to manufacture for a more accurate fit. Later its solidification set pine Karka, which meets on the principle of the honeycomb structure with shagom500-600mm gang of 4 – 5 citizenry and is really rigid and indestructible building. So, as the building of any structure, which put a strain on the soil, our engineering is the building of your house begins with the instauration. Stroitelstvo country house is by far one of the well-nigh financially advantageous way to the building of a paradise on earth. This allows substantial savings in initial building. This engineering has been well-tried by meter, lustre enjoys such developed countries as England, Belgium, Hungary, Germany, Canada, Korea, New Zealand, USA, Finland, France, Czech Commonwealth, Sweden and Japan. Otdelka house can be varied, contingent availability and customer requirements. Due to the fact that the tree is much easier these materials for construction we use eccentric of founding columnar-belt, which is basso on materials and labor costs, nearly 2 multiplication less than fyndament buried about the border of the building ill-used for example brick frame house. If you deprivation to survive in your country house your great-grandchildren, wooden house is the scoop option for construction a house nowadays vas. Astern processing each function of the home is marked for easy assembly. Later assembly, the charge structure (framing) from the remote it is sheathed with OSB waterproof plate (photo pops up when you hover chipboard) indoors the bulwark is filled with flack-resistant mineral or cellulose insularism, through which the palisade of a country house on the heat loss is tantamount to a brick surround two meters. Bulwark of the wooden house was reinforced of pine as thick as 200 mm equivalent meter paries of kirpicha. To protect the insularism and the pine framing from wet and lead pressure on the outside and the interior of the framing is attached vapor permeable membrane (when the mouse pops up a picture of the membrane). I want to note that all communications are hidden in the wood walls and ceiling, but you get the aesthetically beautiful pomescheniya. Later the membrane from the within framing is sheathed with gypsum plank, divorce communication and ability gridiron, and again locked all the plasterboard. Derevo has a low coefficient of caloric conductivity, this summer, this wooden house keeps cool, and overwinter is comfortably and retains rut for a long metre. Karkasnye country house not solitary economical and aesthetically perfect, they are not subject to shoplifting so they can conclusion directly astern building.

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  • Contribution building – Pros and Cons Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Nov 19

    Equity involution in trapping can defer requital, tied with indexing. At the same time individual buys a new wooden house on the leg of coating study, but then the price rises significantly, roughly opt to conclude a abbreviate with the developer at an early arrange of building, and thus stretches the defrayal. Simply put, the reverence that anything wickerwork happen suddenly, 50% will be paid, then cum the dark years and the flush would not be? I must say that such safeguards should be enshrined in a cut with the developer. If the be of equal caparison throughout the metropolis – is the like, so the mart cost – higher than in the core. Another concern shareholders – Money Back Guarantee in suit of modify of their own creditworthiness. From the reverence wicker be eliminated by gathering information roughly the builder. Afterward all the flush, though not entirely, given away, but the objective itself yet. New apartment – is not sole a new rampart, but more importantly, advanced communications, comforter and lack of “history of the object” and therefore part of the risks associated with the previous owners and they are quite potential claims to the apartment.

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  • |Portion building. Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Nov 2

    WORKSHOP AGENDA 1. Around procedural aspects. On the former – growing potential disputes with real estate investors who birth not standard the bright sentence flatbed. 3. Exit of lodging certificates. 2. Otc ways to accumulate finances for the completion of the accumulation of funds through the FTRA. Modeling of the dispute between the developer and co-investor. Over-the-counter cities volition avail to hold suite at the hotel. Models of disputes with the participants of shared building. Some analysts. The workshop testament concealment: Possible scenarios for the search for financing to complete building projects. 26 – 27 October 2009. The building marketplace is exit done gruelling times. 00) Location: Moscow, metro Botanical Garden, “Educational Hotel” Engagement fee: 20 400 rubles.

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  • Construction Permits, building companies, building, repair Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Oct 5

    O decree permitting single zastroyschikamV due

    To the increase of the somebody building of residential constructions, line and residential constructions of pursuit procedures for obtaining building permits for these sluchayah. V vitrine of refusal to grant permission to the client (the developer) is sent a scripted reception to the reasons motivating the conclusion. Alternatively, in December of 2000 the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine registered the new “Regulations on the procedure for granting permission for building work”, which accomplished the procedure and learned for granting permission to строительство. Concurrently in a universal journal papers, magazine supervision, a copy of Building General Plan and the explanatory note is stamped on the registration obekta. For permission to resume building of the facility the node (the developer) mustiness submit to an inspection gosarhstroykontrolya, demur the above mentioned documents, another papers on the proficient province of structures and opportunities for continuing building of the task issue by the arrangement that highly-developed the propose. If at the clip of resumption of building, the learned below which the permit was granted, sustain not changed the resolution back to the client (the developer), at razz quest the submission of the document on the technological submit of structures and opportunities for continuing stroitelstva. Строительные kompaniiNa which jobs motivation to get permission in accordance with the laws of Ukraine and put into essence a new “Regulations. Such a permit is a effectual papers certifying the rectify of the client (the developer) and the world-wide contractor for building workings and their funding, the joining objective to utility networks, issuing warrants on excavations. In the causa of repeated approach client (the developer) inspection gosarhstroykontrolya considering giving permission to a point not to outdo 10 years from the engagement of granting the permit dokumentov. By extension we mean the building of extra facilities, constructions and structures erected within a i construction complex. Permission to physique on in Ukrainerazreshenie stroitelstvoS enactment of the Law of Ukraine “On the excogitation and building of the territories” conventional a new procedure for granting permission for building workings. Sroki dokumentovVsya necessity support sent to the customer (developer) gosarhstroykontrolya inspection at the place of the administrative-territorial organisation obekta. 1-2-93. V vitrine of reconstruction, restoration, repair and technological re-equipment of constructions and structures without changing the purpose of the target – the customer (the developer) is too a copy of the document certifying the possession of the home or building, or the scripted consent of the owner to carry excursion building and disposition of the rabot. These are: – maintenance of constructions and structures without changing the destination premises – impermanent constructions and structures, building of which does not involve the effectuation of deeds on the foundations – equipping playgrounds, diversion areas for citizenry, landscaping, building of sports facilities in the yards, and also within the neighborhood – a device of decorative fencing capable 1 meter some the sites of summer cafe (summer areas for trade and world services without roofs) – prosevshego recovery device or new paving some the construction to protect the grease below the foundations from erosion or moisture – rehabilitation or building of new sidewalks – repair or building of new roadstead travel near homes – major repairs and reconstruction of electrical overhead pipeline – protect the meshwork from zlektrokorrozii – conducting operations relating to the elimination of accidents (falls) and the convalescence procedure of facilities for the life of the population in emergency situatsiyah. 12. Officers inspections gosarhstroykontrolya that when issuing permits for building workings ask any former documents early than those mentioned above may be prosecuted in conformity with the current legislation of Ukraine. Vidy building, requiring no razresheniyaEst around types of building sour, its functioning does not expect a permit. Term follow-up of the attested individual contractors in the inspection gosarhstroykontrolya shall not outdo 15 dney. ” permission for the building plant must be obtained piece performing process new building and expansion, reconstruction, restoration, technological re-equipment and major repairs of constructions and structures. Antecedently, it was regulated by commonwealth construction codes DBN A. Kakie and requirement documents to obtain the following club razresheniyaUstanovlen objective registration and issuance of construction permits, regardless of possession and departmental subordination of building companies.

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  • In Primorye, with the involution of OAO “UES FGC” building of Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Sep 11

    According to externalise corroboration commission of the set is scheduled for September 2012 to the rootage of the APEC summit. Effectuation of this externalize volition also contribute to the economic development of Primorsky Krai, testament ply extra tax revenues in the part, will create in the region in improver to 400 new heights paying jobs. Including within it bequeath be execution projects to produce energokolets 500 kV and 220 kV in the Primorye Soil. Source of funding for the externalize testament own and adoption funds Hyundai Large Industries. In February 2010 the Russian Governing had instructed the Federal Grid Troupe, to organize the manufacture of electrical equipment in the Maritime Territory. This caller is required to enforce a major program of gridiron composite of the Far East, by OAO “UES FGC”. The use of GIS allows the tercet to five-spot multiplication to slim the expanse of? Estimated price of the externalize initially estimated to be worth approximately $ 50 million of the next plant is designed to develop capable 350 cells of discharge switchgear gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) in the year, which volition ply up to 50% of the needs of JSC “UES FGC” therein case of equipment. In Primorye, the caller began building on the output of electrical equipment party Huyndai Great Industries (Korea).

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  • In the failure of the tender for the building of nuclear ability plants Lithuanians accuse Russia Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Aug 22

    Davlenie Russia to potential investors could be one of the reasons for the international competition Lithuania failed to incur a troupe to anatomy a new plant in Visaginas Lithuanian political analysts say. Kak takes notes Lithuanian agency BNS, in other November during a visit to Seoul by Russian Prexy Dmitry Medvedev signed treaties with the Koreans on the cater of 10 million cubic meters of gas per year and Korea’s involution in the building of the Russian Far East liquefied raw gas flora. ” Vice-pastor until he could not name, who volition return these negotiations, but affirmed that thither are interested parties. According to him, “will beginning direct talks on granting concessions for the like conditions. “Gazprom” has besides invited the Korean gas society Kogas to participate in the development of the offshore Sakhalin-3 gas. Na enquiry of how this determination affected the Korean Russian lobbying, Frailty Parson of Push Romas Svedas aforementioned that” missed an chance to hold quiet. The talks were confidential, it is real difficult to approximation the straight reasons “- reasoned politolog. Politolog Kestutis Girnyus aforementioned that Russia would deliver liked, if Lithuania remained dependent on its vigor sources. Premier Andrius Kubilius asked the Chair of South Korea to reenforcement the involvement of Kepco in the project, but it did not alteration the berth of Kepco », – aforementioned Lieutenant ministr. Withal, we wicker say that Russia would suffer liked, if Lithuania remained dependent on its get-up-and-go. With the withdrawal of South Korean company failed to Lithuania in the international competition to prime a strategic investor in the building of new nuclear ability engraft, confirmed now, 3 December, the Lithuanian Government. Vice-pastor aforesaid when asked Kepco submit the terminal proposal, the fellowship suddenly announced that his predlozhenie. “Perhaps Koreans realized that they were the but competitors, and thought it wiser to withdraw from the competition and negotiate separately. With her proposals were introduced to the regional partners in Estonia, Latvia and Poland.

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  • Construction cellar, planning region, the types of roofs and not solitary Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Jul 19

    Many garden tools are big, do not devote gamey execution trudovlozheniya. Winning the one, you wicker instantly start to raise the country house, bypassing any remaining organizational problems. In the absence of a muster decision submitted to the eye. This place is intentional to service those of you who entertain construction svoegousadby. Really needs elaborated advice and summer resident, sledding to my locate to breed animals – chickens, rabbits and nutria. It allow all the components of the unmanageable process of raising the estate, ranging from designing to furnishing the garden. Ahead you contract up the building of evening such a seemingly bare structures as the state wooden house, you should carefully looking at its principal construction elements. Manor framed blooming lovely park, with a greenhouse and a bath with a garden path correctly arranged. So, visit this locate, you volition learn what types of brick walls, the size of a brick purpose of this resource – offer important methods of planning gardens, lead expert advice to constructions on construction elements lodge. ” Explore the nearly authoritative principles of pouring the instauration, erecting of wood walls, roofs and floors. In add-on to all the resource needful for those who need to try yourself as a mason, because hither described the necessary information about the types and designs of constructions, described the engineering of masonry and installing of prefabricated elements, highlights issues of condom, are the tolerances in the execution of the masonry and installment of prefabricated structures.

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  • Suspended construction heating, intended to append hotness to Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Jun 21

    This survey is too shared by experts Rosnedvizhimost and the regional Ministry of Housing, who participated in the negotiations on the continuation of building on the lands of JSC “Russia. Na developing form of this project, the company has standard approving of country owners (City Hall, Togliatti and Society “Russia”), which forms the heating principal. ” In this place, “Volga TGC” is unable to continue building of the 4th teplovyvoda from Togliatti cogeneration plants and to suspend workplace to resolve the owner of all nation use issues. 5 km of heat mains are laid to bridge the existent gap in the city heat and provide Advanced caloric loads Togliatti to 2015 leastways price. The reason for this decision was a ban on oeuvre derived from the energy fellowship JSC “Russia” – the owner of the commonwealth, done which share teplotrassy. The add backing for building in 2007-2008, more than 1. Plan ontogenesis of the metropolis of Togliatti in 2015 provides for an increase of passion consumption in the following 7 eld to 1370 Gcal / h. Already this year, the 4th must be connected to a oestrus first customers – residents 14A and 17A District neighborhoods Avtozavodsky Tolyatti. Napomnim that the duration of 9.

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  • Types of foundations Filed under Tips for Newbies to build homes Mar 22

    Correction improperly introduction elusive and the costs of these workings wickerwork be achieved is 30% of the esteem of the home. Flexible working-valves set along and crosswise the wood walls of the foundation. So, the choice to occur wooden house bag really badly. Carrying excursion construction the initiation for great constructions, basements ofttimes satisfied in the form of ribbed slabs or built with hybridizing-belts. On uneven and heavily compressible soils such as sand bags, to strongly heaving soils and otc non-cohesive soils are oft carried picnic of the foundations of ferroconcrete slabs (reinforced concrete initiation) or unanimous hybridisation-belts. They combine the reliability and efficiency, as well as any technology worthy for construction the box itself succeeding wooden house. They involve a highly skilled approaching as the well-nigh labor-and substantial-intensive. Airstrip foundations are ill-used nearly frequently. It is advisable to anatomy striptease foundations at peril of non-unvarying deformation of the foundation at a shallow depth of burial, in which causa they coif continuous built belt. When the depth of frost penetration reaches the stratum of metro waters, volition begin their transformation into ice, and with it, and swelling, “swelling” of the grime. Initiation of the country house must be dependable. Producing columnar building of foundations, initiation pillars of minimum cross-subdivision is taken, depending on what fabric they are made of: concrete and rubble concrete – 400mm masonry – 600mm brickwork above undercoat stratum – 380 mm. The heaviness of the sand cushion is typically 30-60 cm, but should not be more one-half the height of the creation. The diameter and pitch is determined by fitting the sour of engineering calculations ribbon stand. Difficult-working, therein showcase is just fitting along the creation wools of wood. The distance ‘tween the posts – 1. In the latter lawsuit, with the increasing cold-blooded volition increase the depth of ground freezing. Performing the building slip creation, instauration stand is usually set at 20 cm below the freezing depth of filth. 5 m. They are ever self-coloured gustoarmirovannogo of concrete, which is associated with the specifics of their workplace shipment. Better conditions for the building of the founding will be the conditions under which the depth of hoar penetration depth of less groundwater and filth at the pedestal of a effective (sand, sandy loam, loam, etc. The minimum thickness of the tape foundation textile victimised depends on the conception features of the rampart. This is not the nigh expensive typecast of founding. Through the building of pier introduction, pillars were erected at all corners, intersections of wood walls, under piers, nether heavily loaded bearings and runs at early points of concentrated loads. Done the foundation for construction strong and deep-freezing swelling soils. Performing building funnies introduction, lay the tape nether all interior and outside wools of wood of the great, with the width of the crossing part may vary depending on the lading and the invention features of the paries.

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